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Glossary and IT Function Definitions


Business Process Reengineering (BPR):

An organizational process that helps to identify fundamental business objectives, formulate a detailed strategy to achieve those objectives, determine measures for success, redesign business processes, and implement new policies and procedures.

Computer-Based Training (CBT):

Any course of instruction whose primary means of delivery is a computer. A CBT course may be delivered via a software product installed on a single computer, through a corporate or educational intranet, or over the Internet as web-based training.

Computer Programming:

Includes, but it not limited to, coding, testing (all levels), Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) integration, correcting, debugging, compiling, documentation, input/output functions, interfacing, change management.

Computer System:

Consists of hardware components that have been carefully chosen so that they work well together and software components or programs that run in the computer.

Computer Systems Analysis:

Includes, but is not limited to, feasibility study, requirements definition, data modeling, process modeling, prototyping, conceptual design, detail design, COTS integration design, specifications construction, testing (all levels), implementation, COTS integration implementation, documentation, systems support and initial implementation training, data base design, planning, systems conversion and/or migration, and project management.

Computer Systems Security:

Includes, but is not limited to, analysis, assessment, planning, and administering security of firewall, virus, PKI and VPN on platforms to include but not limited to mainframe, servers, microcomputers, and specialized computer equipment.

COTS (Commercial-off-the-shelf):

Ready-made products that can easily be obtained.

Database Management Services:

Includes, but is not limited to, advice, design, modeling, development, deployment and management of databases on any platform to include but not limited to mainframe, server and standalone personal computer. Conducts performance monitoring/measurement, systems stress testing, quality control benchmarks.

Desktop Support:

Includes, but is not limited to, installation of commercial off-the-shelf products (COTS), optimizing, ghosting, desktop problem resolution analysis, installation of personal computers, printers, scanners, and other personal computer peripherals.

Electronic Commerce/Electronic Data Interchange Services:

Includes, but is not limited to, analysis, design, web design, operation, monitoring, management, and maintaining various forms of electronic government/commerce solutions and systems; programming, systems analysis, project management, and systems design, development, web development, implementation and initial implementation training specific to electronic commerce/electronic data interchange (EDI) that requires specialized skill sets and experience with enterprise systems, languages, technologies and communications.

Electronic Document Management System Services:

Includes, but is not limited to imaging/digitizing, workflow, and Electronic Document Management Systems (EDMS). Services include, but are not limited to, risk assessment, workflow analysis, document indexing/queuing and workload management, system/application/network design and security advising, application system, interface development, system migration strategies document conversion (hardcopy to electronic or electronic to new system/media), performance monitoring/measurement, systems stress testing/benchmarking, collaborative tools (implies Business Process Reengineering), advising, briefings/presentation, document and records retention/archiving; programming, systems analysis, project management, workflow management and document tracking, database management and systems design, development, implementation, and initial implementation training specific to Electronic Document Management Systems (EDMS) that require specialized skill sets and experience with enterprise systems, languages, technologies, and communications.

Geographic Information Systems Services:

Includes, but is not limited to, analysis, mapping, operation, digitizing, capacity planning, design, intranet, internet, project management, advising, presentations, documentation, and various other forms of Geographic Information Systems (GIS); programming, systems analysis, project management, systems utilization, database management and systems design, development implementation and initial implementation training specific to GIS that requires specialized skill sets and experience with enterprise systems, languages, technologies, and communications.


All or part of the physical components of an information processing system, such as computers, peripheral devices or physical devices that are capable of performing automated computing functions.

Help Desk Support:

Includes, but is not limited to, the development, design, implementation, and operation (on-site, off-site) of a Help Desk, including LAN technical support and LAN problem determination and diagnosis. This can also entail support, problem solving, and Help Desk documentation including all media, project management and other Help Desk duties.

Hosting (also known as Web site hosting, Web hosting, and Webhosting):

The business of housing, serving, and maintaining files for one or more web sites.

Information Technology (IT):

Electronic data processing goods and services, telecommunications goods and services, security goods and services, microprocessors, software, information processing, office systems, any services related to the foregoing, and consulting or other services for design or redesign of information technology supporting business processes IT encompasses all forms of technology used to create, store, exchange, and use information in its various forms (business data, voice conversations, still images, motion pictures, multimedia presentations, and other forms, including those not yet conceived).

IT Graphics and Presentation:

Includes, but it not limited to graphic design for Graphical User Interface (GUI) of legacy and new applications on the web, personal computer, and mainframe environments, presentation design, user interface skills.

IT Planning:

Includes, but is not limited to, requirements development, needs assessment, risk assessment, evaluation, migration strategies (new systems, upgrades, exit), planning, strategic initiatives, Joint Application Development (JAD) sessions, efficiency review, life cycle management, feasibility study and project management.

IT Support Staff/Operations:

Includes, but is not limited to, interim IT services which include the following: Computer Operator, Data Control Clerk, Lead Console Operator, Mainframe Documentation Specialist, Mainframe Help Desk Specialist, Operations Analyst, Operations Scheduler, Peripheral Operator, Print Operator, Production Control Specialist, Shift Supervisor, Systems Programmer, Tape Clerk, Tape Librarian and Tape Operator; interim services employed to supplement or augment LAN administration or LAN management duties for an agency.

IT Training:

Transferring technical knowledge, in any format, from a subject matter expert or CBT (Computer Based Training) to an individual. It provides instructions for each command and functions within an application with user actions and anticipated system response. It also includes device instructions such as printer operations, re-configuring a desktop or other instruction necessary to meet a technology knowledge need. It also includes the development of training programs and materials for delivery of training. IT Training includes, but is not limited to, training needs assessment and needs analysis, skills gap analysis, training plans, and training management software tools; on-sit off-site instructor-led training, including classroom facilities, hardware, applications software, application and or distributive based development tools, operating systems, communication technology, and networking software, including LAN-related training; CBT, multi-media, video, audio, distance learning, Internet-provided services; One-on-one instruction on State-developed system, course materials, course development, train-the-trainer and help desk training support.

ITS (Office of Information Technology Services):

State agency that provides shared information technology services for state agencies and other governmental units in the areas of information processing, telecommunications, systems development, and technology training.

Internet Service Provider (ISP):

A company that provides individuals and other companies access to the Internet and other related services such as Web site building and virtual hosting. An ISP has the equipment and the telecommunication line access required to have a point-of-presence on the Internet for the geographic area served.


Includes, but is not limited to, integrating middleware products for connecting disparate applications/systems; connections between enterprise resource planning applications such as SAP, Oracle, PeopleSoft, Clarify, applications and databases internet applications and legacy systems; CORBA, Application servers.

Network Security Services:

Includes, but is not limited to, network security advising for design and review of LAN/WAN networks, Firewalls, Virtual Private Networks; and includes development and review of Network and Data Policies and Procedures; network security LAN/WAN scans, and network penetration tests; testing of Routers, mainframe systems security, open systems enterprise servers, Firewalls, Virtual Private Networks, Secure ID, Network Intrusion Detection systems (IDS), other network appliances, and Network policies and procedures.

Personal Computer (PC):

A computer that can work independently or work as part of a network.

Project Management:

The formalized process of managing a large project. Typically accomplished with the assistance of project management application software.


A device that captures images from photographic prints, posters, magazine pages, and similar sources for computer editing and display.

Security Services:

Risk assessment and protection of the physical, intellectual, and electronic assets of an enterprise, including security policies, network access, virus protection, firewalls, Network Operating System administration and workstation security.


A functional unit that provides shared services to workstations over a network; for example, a file server, a print server, a mail server. A platform on which software executes.


All or parts of the programs, procedures, rules, and associated documentation of a data processing system. Various kinds of programs used to operate computers and related devices. Software is often divided into application software (programs that do work users are directly interested in) and system software (which includes operating systems and any program that supports application software).

Web Hosting:

The business of housing, serving, and maintaining files for one or more Web sites.

Web Server:

A computer that holds the files for one or more sites.

Web Site:

An electronic collection of web pages accessible through an intranet in an organization or through the internet on the world wide web. The initial connection to a web site is through a home page. The web site may contain links to other web pages or sites

IT Function Definitions

Acquisition of all Hardware, Software and Consulting Services:

Procuring IT resources such as desktops, servers, software, personnel, etc. to fulfill the technical needs of the organization. For hardware and software, it involves determining what kind of hardware/software to purchase, how much is needed, determining whether training will be needed and coordinating, negotiating prices and licensing details, coordinating Purchase Orders, Receiving, Inventory/Asset Management and overseeing the installation. Consulting services procurement differs slightly with consideration to an individual's skill set or a vendor's collected body of technical knowledge.

Analysis and Programming Activities Related to Delivery of Reports/Statistical Analysis/Data Warehousing Operations:

All activities related to the designing and development of application code, building queries or any type of program to generate business and/or statistical reports from a data repository. Examples include the development of adhoc reports, building SQL queries or developing SAS programs.

Applications/Web Development and Maintenance:

Designing and developing according to technical specifications. It also includes gathering technical requirements, designing, prototyping and developing code to produce a mainframe, web based and/or server base application and system testing. Maintenance consists of code revisions to continuously improve performance, adding system functionality, troubleshooting system issues, and all other functions which support the existing systems.

Configuration Management:

As part of a network, configuration management is a system for keeping track of all nodes within a LAN. In software development, it is managing changes to an application using version control. It tracks changes in order to recreate or build earlier version/environments. Configuration management also can prevent unauthorized access to files or alert appropriate personnel when a file has been altered. Code migration, code testing, bug identification and resolution and code version control are some examples where configuration management is utilized.

Data Conversion Planning and Execution:

Gathering and executing data conversion requirements to change one file type to another or migrating the data from one system to another. It includes developing a strategy and implementing data conversion according to a planned set of events. Data conversion plans usually encompass both business and IT conversion activities.

Data-Entry Operations:

The process of entering/validating data into a database or file where the data gathered is stored in a central file for future processing. It does not include entering data into an application via an online screen.

Data Modeling:

Is the process of defining what data you want to capture in a database and the relationships between data elements. It involves analyzing data objects and defining a database system into entities, attributes, and relationships. An example of a data modeling tool would be Oracle Designer.

Help Desk Operations:

A central point of contact for end users to ask questions or report problems within the IT Infrastructure such as applications, systems or processes. The help desk staff provide a level of technical support to an end user. The technical support staff is capable of troubleshooting and resolving technical issues directly or able to forward issues on to a technical SME for resolution. Help Desk staff can be either Level 1, Level 2 or Level 3 support. The help desk also logs and tracks issues using either a manual method or an automated tool such as Track-it, ARS Help Desk, etc.

Infrastructure Planning, Deployment and Operations such as hardware platforms, computer-related equipment, telecommunications, systems software, operating systems, and connectivity requirements:

Any activity on planning, deployment and operations of the infrastructure to include planning, initiating, analyzing, defining, acquiring, implementing/deploying, managing, and supporting hardware, software, telecommunications, networks and other IT components.

IT Architectural Design and Review:

The design and review of an IT environment. The design and review is used to set and enforce standards for all devices that connect to it and all software that run on it. The design is usually produced as a visual diagram or a form of documentation detailing all IT components. The design can consist of guidelines and procedures for Application Architectural, data domains, enterprise management, groupware, networks, platforms, security, system integration, web sites and other technical requirements.

IT Feasibility Study:

An analysis to determine if a business need can be addressed by implementing a technical solution. The result of the study is a determination of whether the solution should be implemented.

IT Management:

Manages the technology infrastructure of an organization which includes the practice of managing IT personnel, IT planning and budgeting, overseeing implementation and maintenance of hardware/software, overseeing technical projects such as upgrades to networks/ software/etc., overseeing the practice of standards such as SDLC (System Development Life Cycle)/ISO (International Organization for Standardization)/TQM (Total Quality Management), overseeing security initiatives to lessen intrusions, insuring data integrity, delivering of technical training and managing all other aspects of IT.

IT Policies/Procedures for Development and Deployment:

Guidelines/road maps set forth to establish a common approach to develop and/or deploy any IT component specific to the technical environment. IT policies are rules and regulations which can determine the type of internal/external information an employee can access, software to be installed on computer systems, prioritizing IT resources such as network access, and other rules which govern the IT environment. The procedure is a set of instructions to follow such as inputs, activities, sequence, decision points and outputs necessary to ensure success of development/deployment of IT resources. Examples of policies and procedures could include release management, code version control procedures, etc.

IT Product and Services Initial Reviews:

The preliminary process of conducting research to locate potential IT products/solutions to meet business needs, identifying new market products, gathering information regarding business and technical specifications, performing a gap analysis to determine feasibility that may potentially lead to a procurement process. The review process can take place within a division with technical and contractual assistance from DIRM or the review can be administered entirely through DIRM.

IT Project Management Services:

The process of tracking an information systems project from inception through deployment and includes, but is not limited to, project initiation, efficiency review, life cycle management, configuration management planning, control management planning, resource management, IV&V management, risk management, time and cost management analysis. This includes a basic understanding of technical aspects of a project in order to track and control all activities, tasks, deliverables, roles, and techniques necessary to plan, estimate, and schedule. This also includes the utilization of skill levels, estimating task difficulty and timeframe, identifying available calendars, task dependencies, load leveling, both technical and business resource availability, and all other elements necessary to plan and manage a project.

IT Standards/Best Practices for Development and Deployment:

Processes and procedures used within an IT environment to facilitate the most practical methods for developing and deploying IT technology. These processes and procedures have been tried and tested within the IT community and have been proven to significantly increase the likelihood of success. Examples of IT Standards and Best Practices can include ISO 9000, TQM, CMM (Capability Maturity Model), etc.

IT Training:

Transferring technical knowledge, in any format, from a subject matter expert or CBT (Computer Based Training) to an individual. It provides instructions for each command and functions within an application with user actions and anticipated system response. It also includes device instructions such as printer operations, re-configuring a desktop or other instruction necessary to meet a technology knowledge need. It also includes the development of training programs and materials for delivery of training.

ITS and IRMC Coordination:

Cooperation and communication between DHHS agencies and Information Technology Services (ITS) and/or Information Resource Management Commission (IRMC) residing within the state of North Carolina.

LAN Administration:

Any activity related to planning, initiating, developing, maintaining, and supporting a LAN (Local Area Network). It includes the installation and maintenance of routers, hubs, switches, software installs including firewalls, any wiring or maintenance of fiber, Ethernet or token ring, any wireless connection such as 802.11 or Bluetooth, and any activity which links workstations, printers, file servers or other devices within an organization.

Printing and Distribution Operations:

Is a central operation that performs activities related to physical or electronic delivery of output from an application and the process of distributing output regardless of media to an end user. This would include electronic distribution of reports from a schedule job run or the distribution of reports being generated within a business unit using software such as Crystal, FileMaker Pro, Excel, AutoCad, etc.

Quality Assurance:

A process of continual feedback for making improvements to project management methodology deployment, hardware and software design, development, testing, distribution and implementation within the IT environment. The purpose is to ensure procedures are followed and to document, improve and refine existing processes over an extended period of time. It ensures the IT infrastructure and applications are being developed according to specified requirement and conform to pre-defined standards such as an internal process, TQM (Total Quality Management), ISO (International Organization for Standardization), CMM (Capability Maturity Model), etc.

RFI/RFP/Contract Development:

RFI (Request for Information)/RFP (Request for Proposal) is a request for bids for hardware, software, and/or any IT service providing details, such as business and/or system specifications of work to be performed. The RFI/RFP/Contract Development maybe partial, taking place within a division in which the RFI/RFP/Contract has an IT component, or those taking place within a division in which the RFI/RFP/Contract development is solely IT related. The RFI/RFP/Contract development will also include standard components such as general terms and conditions, scope, evaluation criteria, etc. More specifically to IT, the RFI/RFP/Contract details such items as Warranties and Liabilities of Hardware/Software, Maintenance of Hardware/Software, and Acceptance Criteria such as performance expectations for implementation and ongoing support deliverables.

Scheduling and Control Operations:

Managing operational activities such as setting up job queues within a pre-determined timeframe to achieve maximum productivity and efficiency of resources based on factors such as priority, length of time in job queue and available system resources.

Security Planning, Gap Analysis and Administration:

Activities performed to eliminate or reduce risk in an IT environment by anticipating and preparing for any unwarranted intrusion into an IT infrastructure. It includes all activities for formulating, enforcing and administering security polices and any other activity which secures files, networks and systems. Gap Analysis includes gathering business and technical requirements to identify and develop a road map to go from an existing state to a desired state. Examples are moving from a mainframe legacy system to an enterprise web-based system or an existing application, version 1.0, to an enhanced application, version 2.0.

Technical Services Support/Administration such as data base administration, performance monitoring/tuning, general backup and recovery, disaster backup and recovery, data storage planning and monitoring:

Providing support functions to implement and/or maintain a Database Management System (DBMS). Activities include setting up the physical design of the database and managing the database for integrity, monitoring and measuring performance, evaluating and recording of status information about computer system devices and processes. Tuning implies planned system modifications in order to improve performance. General backup and recovery provides support functions to routinely backup data files and logs of computer activities as part of a backup and recovery. This process enables the restore of lost data in the event of a hardware or software failure. This also includes any disaster recovery activities such as procurement of duplication of IT operations in the event of a catastrophe and the planning and writing of procedures for activating a disaster recovery procedure including the storage of backups at an off-site location. Data storage includes planning where and how data is stored as well as capacity planning. Data maybe stored in a permanent data warehouse, in various system files, databases or even text documents. Monitoring implies data security, data integrity, data availability, and any other functions which ensure data is readily available.

Vendor/Contract Management:

Managing the partnership between vendor and client in regard to meeting contractual terms of the IT contract (e.g. managing the development and deployment activities being performed by a vendor to ensure compliance with the contract). Vendor and Contract Management include all vendors who provide any IT service to the division or any management of contracts with an IT component.

Vendor/Contract Negotiations:

Review and reconciliation of policy and procedures, business/technical requirements and approach, methodologies, and other related details with a vendor (e.g. contract costs, terms of service, service level agreement) in order to come to a binding agreement. The Vendor/Contract Negotiations include all negotiations taking place where an IT component exist within the potential contract or where the potential contract is solely IT related. Any contract being negotiated with an IT component should be done in conjunction with DIRM.



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Updated: May 8, 2013